For a long time our ancestors were not concerned a lot with questions of sanitary and hygiene: in the European cities slops and sewage were thrown out of the windows directly on the street, and even in the XVIII century balconies of palaces and neighboring bushes often served in Versailles as a place to ease oneself.
It is possible to consider the ancestor of toilet sink to be a night vase from the porcelain, given to noble people in France or a usual stool with the hole in it, used for the same purposes in Germany. But a traditional toilet sink, as 廁紙架 a bowl with a flash tank, was invented by the Englishman Thomas Crapper. American “crapper” that means a toilet came from the surname of its inventor. This businesslike Englishman, being first an ordinary sanitary technician in Chelsea, lately created the company and in some years supplied Buckingham and Windsor palaces with water-dispensing and sanitary equipment.
His system of metered and economic water flush in the form of a tank ensured Crapper the place in the history of sanitary engineering. Since the first sample was created, a variety of sanitary equipment such as toilet sinks, urinals, bidet and sinks of different types appeared on different continents and in different countries. And at first sight all of them look similar, irrespective of country of origin.
However national priorities nevertheless are noticeable: Scandinavians, for example, concentrated on the improvement of water supply and flush systems, Americans and Germans traditionally make toilet bowls of big size, and production of Italians is distinguished by an original decor and moulding. Japanese made of a toilet sink a mini-laboratory doing analysis.
Toilet sinks became colorful, painted, gilt and decorated with moulding. However, still the majority of buyers prefer traditional white color and classical forms of sanitary equipment. All of the sanitary equipment is still made from porcelain and faience. To distinguish one from another at first sight is often difficult even for an expert because products are covered with color glazes or enamels. From the point of view of operational characteristics it is considered, that porcelain is less porous, has lower factor of water absorption, and accordingly, absorbs dirt and smells less.
Structurally toilet sinks differ by their connection to the water flush (and it is important when choosing a toilet sink model for your flat): there are toilet sinks with vertical flush (into a floor) and horizontal or slanting one (into a wall). Toilet sinks with tanks, as well as bathrooms, can be separate when a tank and a toilet sink are mounted separately, and combined, being the monoblock. Monoblocks are easier to mount and lower on height (if the economy of a place is important), but is considerably more expensive than the “isolated” models.
A characteristic of a flush tank can be its work in one mode when all water flushes at once, and in two modes, allowing flushing both all water at once, and half of it. Such tank has two flush buttons and considerably saves water. The classical toilet sink was always mounted to the floor, but now there are wall-mounted models. They are mounted together with a hidden tank, thus all system looks very light and even elegant.
In sanitary equipment, as well as in furniture, the design of a model and its décor is an important point. What could be changed in the form of a toilet sink? And nevertheless, there is a variety of styles in sanitary ceramics such as classics, avant-garde, retro, and there also exist fashionable tendencies. A tendency to the maximal rotundity of forms, smoothness of lines and a popularity of white color, as a symbol of cleanliness, are among them.
National traditions of the country of origin also play a certain role in creation of fashionable collections of sanitary equipment. It is also true about “small details”, creating the atmosphere of retro style such as various inscriptions, fixing details, chains. So, on the porcelain handle of the flush tank reproducing one of the first Victorian Crapper’s toilet sinks there is the following inscription: “pull and go”.
“Examining” the market of modern sanitary equipment and devices, we can only feel sorry for our ancestors, having to go out in frost and rain to get to the blown through hut or to bare night vases with their content in a house till morning.